Staughton Craig Lynd
November 22, 1929
Staughton Craig Lynd (born November 22, 1929) is an American conscientious objector, Quaker, peace activist and civil rights activist, historian, professor, author and lawyer. His involvement in social justice causes has brought him into contact with some of the nation's most influential activists, including Howard Zinn, Tom Hayden, A. J. Muste and David Dellinger.
Lynd's contribution to the cause of social justice and the peace movement is chronicled in Carl Mirra's biography, The Admirable Radical: Staughton Lynd and Cold War Dissent, 1945–1970 (2010).
Lynd was one of two children born to the renowned sociologists Robert Staughton Lynd and Helen Merrell Lynd, who authored the groundbreaking "Middletown" studies of Muncie, Indiana, in the late 1920s and '30s. Staughton Lynd inherited not only his parents' gifts as scholars, but also their strong socialist beliefs. Although Lynd never embraced undemocratic forms of socialism, his ideological outlook led to his expulsion from a non-combatant position in the U.S. military during the McCarthy Era.
He went on to earn a doctorate in history at Columbia University and accepted a teaching position at Spelman College, in Georgia, where he worked closely with historian and civil rights activist Howard Zinn. When Zinn was fired from Spelman at the end of the 1962–63 academic year, Lynd protested. During the summer of 1964, Lynd served as director of the SNCC-organized Freedom Schools of Mississippi. After accepting a position at Yale University, Lynd relocated to New England, along with his wife, Alice, and their children. In 1965 he gave lectures on 'The History of the American Left' at the Free University of New York.
At Yale Lynd became an outspoken opponent of the Vietnam War. His protest activities included speaking engagements, protest marches, and a controversial visit to Hanoi along with Herbert Aptheker and Hayden on a fact-finding trip at the height of the war, which made him unwelcome to the Yale administration. As the protest movement became increasingly violent, Lynd began to have misgivings[which?]. As a self-described "social democratic pacifist" and "Marxist Existentialist Pacifist", he became more interested in the possibilities of local organizing.
In 1967, Lynd signed a letter declaring his intention to refuse to pay taxes in protest against the Vietnam War, and urging other people to also take this stand.
In 1968, Lynd published his book 'Intellectual Origins of American Radicalism' It came under severe criticism by Marxist professor Eugene Genovese, writing in the New York Review of Books. Professor David Donald in reviewing the book called it "a major work in American intellectual history" About the Cambridge University 2009 reprint of the book, Commentary Magazine referred to it as an "established classic". It became clear that Yale would deny Lynd tenure, and he became unemployable in academia. Lynd relocated his family to Chicago.
There, he struggled to make a living from community organizing. Meanwhile, he and his wife, Alice, embarked upon an oral history project dealing with the working class. The conclusions of this work, titled Rank and File, inspired Lynd to study law in order to assist workers victimized by companies and left unprotected by bureaucratic labor unions. In 1973, he enrolled at the University of Chicago law school, where he earned a degree in 1976.
Rust Belt activism
From there, the Lynds relocated to Youngstown, Ohio, in the heart of the Rust Belt. Working first for the union-side labor law firm of Green, Schiavoni, Murphy & Haines, and then for Northeast Ohio Legal Services in Youngstown, he proved to be a vital participant in the late 1970s struggle to keep the Youngstown steel mills open. He served as lead counsel for six local unions, several dozen individual steelworkers, and the Ecumenical Coalition of the Mahoning Valley which sought to reopen the mills under worker-community ownership. Despite the ultimate failure of those efforts, the Lynds continued organizing in the Youngstown-Warren area. Staughton Lynd remained extremely active as an attorney, taking on a broad range of cases, including those concerning chemically disabled auto workers and retired steelworkers.
Lynd's book, Lucasville, is an investigation into the events surrounding the 1993 prison uprising at Southern Ohio Correctional Facility, and voices serious concern over the integrity of legal proceedings subsequent to the event. A memoir of his and Alice's life, Stepping Stones: Memoir of a Life Together was released in January 2009.
Works by Lynd
- Anti-Federalism in Dutchess County, New York: A Study of Democracy and Class Conflict in the Revolutionary Era (1962)
- Ed. Nonviolence in America: A Documentary History (1966)
- Ed. Reconstruction (1967)
- With Tom Hayden, The Other Side (1967)
- Intellectual Origins of American Radicalism (1968)
- Class Conflict, Slavery, and the United States Constitution: Ten Essays (1968)
- With Michael Ferber, The Resistance (1971)
- Ed. Personal Histories of the Early C.I.O. (1971)
- With Gar Alperovitz, Strategy and Program: Two Essays Toward a New American Socialism (1973)
- Ed. American Labor Radicalism: Testimonies and Interpretations (1973)
- Ed. with Alice Lynd, Rank and File: Personal Histories by Working-Class Organizers (1973)
- With Helen Merrell Lynd, Possibilities (1977)
- Labor Law for the Rank & Filer (1978)
- The Fight Against Shutdowns: Youngstown's Steel Mill Closings (1982)
- Solidarity Unionism: Rebuilding the Labor Movement from Below (1992)
- Ed. with Alice Lynd, Homeland: Oral Histories of Palestine and Palestinians (1993)
- Ed. with Alice Lynd, Nonviolence in America: A Documentary History 2nd Ed. (1995)
- With Alice Lynd, Liberation Theology for Quakers (1996)
- "We Are All Leaders": The Alternative Unionism of the Early 1930s (1996)
- Living Inside Our Hope: A Steadfast Radical's Thoughts on Rebuilding the Movement (1997)
- With Alice Lynd, The New Rank and File (2000)
- Lucasville: The Untold Story of a Prison Uprising (2004)
- Napue Nightmares: Perjured Testimony in Trials Following the 1993 Lucasville, Ohio Prison Uprising (2008)
- With Daniel Gross, Labor Law for the Rank & Filer: Building Solidarity While Staying Clear of the Law 2nd Ed. (2008)
- With Andrej Grubačić, Wobblies & Zapatistas: Conversations on Anarchism, Marxism and Radical History (2008)
- Class Conflict, Slavery, and the United States Constitution: Ten Essays 2nd Ed. (2009)
- With Alice Lynd, Stepping Stones: Memoir of a Life Together (2009)
- Intellectual Origins of American Radicalism (Cambridge University Press)(2009)
- From Here to There: The Staughton Lynd Reader (2010)
- With Daniel Gross, Solidarity Unionism at Starbucks (2011)
- Ed. with Alice Lynd, Rank and File: Personal Histories by Working-Class Organizers (Expanded Edition, 2011)
- Accompanying: Pathways to Social Change (2013)
- Doing History from the Bottom Up: On E.P. Thompson, Howard Zinn, and Rebuilding the Labor Movement from Below (2014)
- Solidarity Unionism: Rebuilding the Labor Movement from Below (Second Edition, 2015)
- With Alice Lynd, Moral Injury and Nonviolent Resistance: Breaking the Cycle of Violence in the Military and Behind Bars (2017)
- With Alice Lynd, Nonviolence in America: A Documentary History (Third Edition, 2018)
- "Alice and Staughton Lynd Papers (DG 099)". Swarthmore College Peace Collection. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- "Staughton Lynd Facts, information, pictures". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- "Staughton Lynd". Haymarket Books. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- Stanley, Tiffany L. "Sharing Life, and a Lifetime of Causes". Harvard Magazine. Retrieved 2015-01-10. May–June 2010
- "Ohio Citizen Action Honors Staughton and Alice Lynd". EcoWatch. February 2, 2012. Retrieved 2015-01-10.
- Staughton Lynd, Living Inside Our Hope: A Steadfast Radical's Thoughts on Rebuilding the Movement, Cornell University Press, 1997, p. 44.
- Zinn, Howard, A People's History of the United States, 1492–Present, 1999. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. P. 486.
- Lisker, Roy. "The Antiwar Movement in New York City 1965–67". Ferment Magazine. Retrieved 2015-01-11. An Updated and revised version of the article published in "Les Temps Modernes" the magazine of Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre September 1968
- "Firing Line with William F. Buckley Jr.: Vietnam: What Next?". Youtube. Youtube. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
- "An Open Letter" archived at Horowitz Transaction Publishers Archive
- Duberman, Martin (2012), Howard Zinn: A Life on the Left, The New Press.
- Thomas G. Fuechtmann, Steeples and Stacks: Religion and Steel Crisis in Youngstown, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 7.
- Carl Mirra, The Admirable Radical: Staughton Lynd and Cold War Dissent (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2010).
- Carl Mirra Radical Historians and the Liberal Establishment: Staughton Lynd's Life with History," Left History, v. 11, no. 1 (Spring 2006).
- Mark Weber and Stephen Paschen, Side by Side: Alice and Staughton Lynd, the Ohio Years (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 2014).
- Scene Magazine, Cleveland, Ohio, May 23, 2002.
- Supreme Court of Ohio Record
- Brown, David S. "Suddenly Staughton," Reviews in American History Volume 39, Number 2, June 2011 pp 354–359 [http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/reviews_in_american_history/v039/39.2.brown.html online at Project MUSE