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|<<||Selected anniversaries for November||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2020 day arrangement
- 1503 – Giuliano della Rovere was elected pope, taking the name Julius II in emulation of Julius Caesar.
- 1611 – The first recorded performance of Shakespeare's play The Tempest was held at the Palace of Whitehall in London, exactly seven years after the first certainly known performance of his tragedy Othello, held in the same building.
- 1944 – World War II: An American F-13 Superfortress made the first flight by an Allied aircraft over Tokyo since the Doolittle Raid in April 1942.
- 1959 – After being struck in the face with a hockey puck, Jacques Plante played the rest of the game wearing a face mask (pictured), now mandatory equipment for goaltenders in ice hockey.
- 619 – Emperor Gaozu allowed the assassination of a khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate by Eastern Turkic rivals, one of the earliest events in the Tang campaigns against the Western Turks.
- 1932 – The Australian military began a "war against emus" (soldier with dead emu pictured), flightless native birds blamed for widespread damage to crops in Western Australia.
- 1949 – The Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference ended with the Netherlands agreeing to transfer sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies to the United States of Indonesia.
- 1959 – American intellectual Charles Van Doren caused a national scandal when he admitted that he had foreknowledge of the questions and answers when he appeared on the television quiz show Twenty-One.
- 1534 – The English parliament passed the first Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII head of the Church of England, supplanting the pope and the Catholic Church.
- 1898 – After several months of military stalemate between French and British forces in Fashoda (now in South Sudan), the French withdrew, ending the Fashoda Incident.
- 1935 – Almost 98 percent of reported votes in a Greek referendum supported the restoration of George II (pictured) as King of the Hellenes.
- 1956 – Suez Crisis: During an invasion of the Gaza Strip, Israeli soldiers shot and killed hundreds of Palestinian refugees and local inhabitants in Khan Yunis.
- 1969 – U.S. president Richard Nixon made a plea for support from the "silent majority", referring to those Americans who did not join in the large demonstrations against the Vietnam War at the time.
- 1780 – In the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, Túpac Amaru II led a rebellion of Aymara, Quechua, and mestizo peasants in protest against the Bourbon Reforms.
- 1791 – Northwest Indian War: In the most severe defeat ever suffered by U.S. forces at the hands of Native Americans, the Western Confederacy won a major victory at the Battle of the Wabash near present-day Fort Recovery in Ohio.
- 1912 – The keel of USS Nevada was laid down, beginning construction on the first "super-dreadnought" of the United States Navy.
- 1964 – Ayatollah Khomeini was arrested by SAVAK and secretly exiled to Turkey.
- 1995 – Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin (pictured) was assassinated by ultranationalist Yigal Amir while at a peace rally at Kings of Israel Square in Tel Aviv.
- 1138 – Lý Anh Tông was enthroned as Emperor of Đại Việt at the age of two, beginning a 37-year reign.
- 1828 – Greek War of Independence: the last of the Ottoman forces departed the Morea (now known as the Peloponnese) after the French Morea expedition (memorial pictured) to recapture the peninsula.
- 1943 – World War II: An unknown aircraft dropped four bombs on Vatican City, which maintained neutrality during the war.
- 1967 – A train derailed near Hither Green maintenance depot in London, killing 49 people and injuring 78 others.
- 2009 – U.S. Army major Nidal Hasan went on a shooting rampage at Fort Hood, Texas, the worst shooting ever to take place on an American military base, killing 13.
- 1869 – In the first intercollegiate American football game, Rutgers College defeated the College of New Jersey 6–4 in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
James Naismith (b. 1861)
- 1665 – The London Gazette, the oldest surviving English-language newspaper, was first published as the Oxford Gazette.
- 1885 – Construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the first transcontinental railroad across Canada, concluded with the driving of the "last spike" in Craigellachie, British Columbia.
- 1916 – In the congressional elections, Jeannette Rankin became the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives.
- 1949 – Oil was discovered in the Caspian Sea off the coast of Azerbaijan, leading to the construction of Neft Daşları, the world's first offshore oil platform.
- 1987 – Singapore's first Mass Rapid Transit line was opened (train pictured), beginning with train services between Yio Chu Kang and Toa Payoh stations.
- 1291 – A law was passed that confined most of Venice's glassmaking industry (example pictured) to nearby Murano.
- 1861 – American Civil War: The USS San Jacinto stopped the British mailship RMS Trent and arrested two Confederate envoys en route to Europe, sparking a major diplomatic crisis between the United Kingdom and the United States.
- 1939 – Georg Elser unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler with a time bomb, but killed eight people and injured sixty-two others instead.
- 1974 – British peer Lord Lucan disappeared without a trace, a day after allegedly murdering his children's nanny Sandra Rivett.
- 2006 – Israeli artillery shelled a row of houses in the Gaza Strip town of Beit Hanoun, killing at least 19 Palestinians and wounding more than 40 others.
- 1729 – Great Britain, France, and Spain signed the Treaty of Seville to end the Anglo-Spanish War, although the underlying tensions were left unresolved.
- 1822 – USS Alligator (pictured) engaged three pirate schooners off the coast of Cuba in one of the West Indies anti-piracy operations of the United States.
- 1888 – Mary Jane Kelly was murdered in London; she was widely believed to be the fifth and final victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper.
- 1913 – The "Big Blow" storm reached its maximum intensity in the Great Lakes Basin of North America, destroying 19 ships and 68,300 tons of cargo, and killing more than 250 people.
- 1967 – French comic book heroes Valérian and Laureline first appeared in Pilote magazine.
- 1865 – Henry Wirz, the Confederate superintendent of Andersonville Prison, was hanged after a controversial conviction, becoming the only American Civil War soldier executed for war crimes.
- 1945 – Indonesian National Revolution: Following the killing of British officer Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby a few weeks earlier, British forces retaliated by attacking Surabaya.
- 1969 – The children's television series Sesame Street (puppeteer Caroll Spinney pictured) premiered in the United States.
- 1975 – SS Edmund Fitzgerald, the largest ship on North America's Great Lakes, sank in Lake Superior with the loss of 29 lives.
- 2009 – Ships of the South Korean and North Korean navies skirmished off Daecheong Island in the Yellow Sea.
- 1215 – The Fourth Lateran Council convened in Rome, during which the Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation was defined.
- 1778 – American Revolutionary War: British forces and their Iroquois allies attacked a fort and the village of Cherry Valley, New York, killing 14 soldiers and 30 civilians.
- 1918 – Józef Piłsudski (pictured) was appointed commander-in-chief of Polish forces by the Regency Council and was entrusted with creating a national government for the newly independent country.
- 1960 – A coup attempt by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam against President Ngo Dinh Diem was crushed after Diem falsely promised reform, allowing loyalists to rescue him.
- 1999 – The House of Lords Act was given royal assent, removing most hereditary peers from the British House of Lords.
- 1905 – In a referendum, 79 percent of voters opted to keep Norway a monarchy, paving the way for Haakon VII to take the throne.
- 1912 – The bodies of Robert Falcon Scott (pictured) and his companions were discovered, roughly eight months after their deaths during the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition to Antarctica.
- 1970 – The Oregon Highway Division unsuccessfully attempted to destroy a rotting beached sperm whale near Florence, Oregon, with dynamite.
- 1996 – A Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 and a Kazakhstan Airlines Ilyushin Il-76 collided in mid-air near New Delhi, killing 349 people, the deadliest such collision in history.
- 2006 – Although the Georgian government declared it illegal, South Ossetia held a referendum on independence, with more than 99 percent of voters in favour of preserving the region's status as a de facto independent state.
- 1002 – King Æthelred II (depiction shown) ordered the massacre of all Danes in England.
- 1841 – Scottish surgeon James Braid observed a demonstration of animal magnetism, which inspired him to study the subject he eventually called hypnotism.
- 1914 – Zaian War: Zaian Berber tribesmen routed French forces in Morocco at the Battle of El Herri.
- 1974 – In Amityville, New York, Ronald DeFeo Jr. killed the other six members of his family, later inspiring the book The Amityville Horror and the subsequent media franchise.
- 1982 – South Korean boxer Kim Duk-koo suffered fatal brain injuries during a match with American Ray Mancini in Las Vegas, leading to significant rule changes in the sport.
- 1680 – German astronomer Gottfried Kirch discovered the Great Comet of 1680, the first comet to be discovered by telescope.
- 1910 – Aviator Eugene Burton Ely performed the first takeoff from a ship (pictured), flying from a makeshift deck on USS Birmingham in Hampton Roads, Virginia.
- 1952 – Al Martino's song "Here in My Heart" became the first number one on the UK Singles Chart.
- 2003 – Astronomers Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz discovered the trans-Neptunian object Sedna.
- 565 – Justin II became Byzantine emperor, his uncle Justinian I having allegedly chosen Justin as his successor on his deathbed.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Union Army General William T. Sherman began his "March to the Sea", inflicting significant damage to property and infrastructure on his way from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.
- 1922 – During a general strike in Guayaquil, Ecuador, police and military fired into a crowd, killing at least 300 people.
- 1959 – Two men murdered a family in Holcomb, Kansas; the events became the subject of Truman Capote's non-fiction novel In Cold Blood, a pioneering work of the true crime genre.
- 2012 – After ten years as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, Hu Jintao stepped down and was replaced by Xi Jinping (pictured).
- 1532 – Spanish conquest of Peru: Conquistador Francisco Pizarro orchestrated a surprise attack (depiction shown) in Cajamarca, capturing the Inca emperor, Atahualpa.
- 1920 – Qantas, Australia's national airline, was founded as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited.
- 1944 – World War II: Operation Queen commenced with one of the heaviest Allied tactical bombings of the war, attacking German targets in the Rur valley.
- 1974 – The Arecibo message, devised by Frank Drake and Carl Sagan, was transmitted towards the globular star cluster M13, carrying basic information about humanity.
- 1839 – Giuseppe Verdi's first opera, Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio, premiered at La Scala in Milan.
- 1894 – H. H. Holmes (pictured), one of the first modern serial killers, was arrested in Boston after killing at least nine people.
- 1978 – The television show Star Wars Holiday Special was broadcast in the United States and became notorious for its extremely negative reception.
- 2009 – Administrators at the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit discovered that their servers had been hacked and thousands of emails and files on climate change had been stolen.
- 1210 – Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III after Otto commanded him to annul the Concordat of Worms.
- 1987 – An underground fire killed 31 people at King's Cross St Pancras tube station in London.
- 1999 – Texas A&M University's Aggie Bonfire collapsed (aftermath pictured), killing 12 people and injuring 27 others, and causing the university to officially declare a hiatus on the 90-year-old annual event.
- 2017 – Cyclone Numa, a rare "medicane", made landfall in Greece to become the worst weather event that the country had experienced since 1977.
- 1794 – The United States and Great Britain signed the Jay Treaty, the basis for ten years of peaceful trade between the two nations.
- 1941 – World War II: The Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney and the German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran destroyed each other in the Indian Ocean.
- 1969 – Playing for Santos against Vasco da Gama in Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian footballer Pelé scored his thousandth goal.
- 1985 – The first of five summits (pictured) between Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. president Ronald Reagan began in Geneva.
- 2013 – A double suicide bombing at the Iranian embassy in Beirut, Lebanon, killed 23 people and injured at least 160 others.
- 1739 – War of Jenkins' Ear: A British naval force arrived at the settlement of Portobello in the Spanish Main (now in Panama), which it would capture the next day.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Fort Lee saw the invasion of New Jersey by British and Hessian forces and the subsequent general retreat of the Continental Army.
- 1902 – While discussing how to promote the newspaper L'Auto, sports journalist Géo Lefèvre came up with the idea of holding a cycling race that later became known as the Tour de France.
- 1969 – A group of Native American activists began a 19-month occupation of Alcatraz Island (graffiti pictured) in San Francisco Bay.
- 1386 – Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur captured and sacked the Georgian capital, Tbilisi, and forced King Bagrat V to convert to Islam.
- 1894 – First Sino-Japanese War: After capturing the Chinese city of Port Arthur, the Japanese Second Army began a massacre of the city's soldiers and civilians.
- 1950 – Two trains collided near Valemount, Canada; the subsequent trial brought future prime minister John Diefenbaker to greater political attention.
- 1964 – The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge (pictured), connecting Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City, opened to traffic as the longest suspension bridge in the world at the time.
- 2009 – An explosion in a coal mine in Heilongjiang, China, killed 108 miners.
- 498 – Following the death of Anastasius II, both Symmachus and Laurentius were elected pope, causing a schism that lasted until 506, when Symmachus was recognized as legitimate.
- 1635 – Dutch colonial forces on Taiwan launched a three-month pacification campaign against Taiwanese indigenous peoples.
- 1910 – The crews of three Brazilian warships – all commissioned only months before – and several smaller vessels mutinied against perceived "slavery" being practised in the Brazilian Navy.
- 1971 – In Britain's worst mountaineering tragedy, the Cairngorm Plateau disaster (location pictured), five teenage students and one of their leaders were found dead from exposure in the Scottish mountains.
- 1733 – African slaves in the Danish West Indies began a revolt against their owners in one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the Americas.
- 1876 – William "Boss" Tweed, a New York City politician who had been arrested for embezzlement, was handed over to U.S. authorities after having escaped from prison and fled to Spain.
- 1992 – IBM released a prototype called "Angler" of the Simon (pictured), a handheld touchscreen mobile phone and personal digital assistant that is considered the first smartphone.
- 2009 – A crowd of people on their way to register Esmael Mangudadatu's candidacy for governor of Maguindanao, Philippines, were kidnapped and killed by supporters of his rival, resulting in 58 deaths.
- 1227 – Leszek the White, High Duke of Poland, was assassinated (depiction shown) during a meeting of Piast dukes.
- 1832 – South Carolina passed the Ordinance of Nullification, declaring that the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were null and void in the state, beginning the Nullification Crisis.
- 1950 – The "Great Appalachian Storm", a large extratropical cyclone, struck the east coast of the United States before moving northeast.
- 1976 – A magnitude 7.3 earthquake struck eastern Turkey, destroying 80 per cent of the buildings in the area, with at least 4,000 casualties.
- 2016 – The Colombian government signed a revised peace deal with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, temporarily bringing an end to the ongoing civil war.
- 1491 – Reconquista: The Granada War was effectively brought to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Granada (surrender depicted) between Castile-Aragon and the Emirate of Granada.
- 1863 – American Civil War: Confederate forces were defeated at the Battle of Missionary Ridge in Chattanooga, Tennessee, opening the door to the Union's invasion of the Deep South.
- 1936 – Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, agreeing that, if the Soviet Union attacked one of them, they would consult each other on what measures to take to "safeguard their common interests".
- 1960 – Three of the four Mirabal sisters, who opposed the dictatorship of military strongman Rafael Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, were beaten and strangled to death.
- 1805 – The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct (pictured), the longest aqueduct in Great Britain and the highest canal aqueduct in the world, opened.
- 1917 – Being unable to resolve disputes with Eddie Livingstone, owner of the Toronto Blueshirts, the other ice hockey clubs of Canada's National Hockey Association officially agreed to break away and form the National Hockey League.
- 1939 – The Soviet Red Army shelled the village of Mainila and then claimed that the fire originated from Finland, giving them a casus belli to launch the Winter War a few days later.
- 2011 – NASA launched the Mars Science Laboratory mission from Cape Canaveral, carrying the Curiosity rover onboard.
- 1895 – Swedish chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel (pictured) signed his last will and testament, setting aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death.
- 1919 – The first fraternity exclusively for collegiate band members, Kappa Kappa Psi, was founded on the campus of Oklahoma State University in Stillwater.
- 1999 – The Labour Party defeated the governing National Party in the New Zealand general election, with Labour's Helen Clark becoming the country's first female prime minister to have won office at an election.
- 2009 – A bomb exploded under, and derailed, a Russian high-speed train travelling between Moscow and Saint Petersburg, killing 28 passengers.
- 1443 – Having deserted the Ottoman army, Skanderbeg arrived in the Albanian city of Krujë and, using a forged letter from Sultan Murad II to the governor of Krujë, became lord of the city.
- 1895 – The first automobile race in the United States, the Chicago Times-Herald race, was held in Chicago.
- 1925 – Grand Ole Opry, the longest-running radio broadcast in the United States, first aired on WSM in Nashville, Tennessee.
- 1967 – Jocelyn Bell Burnell noticed a "bit of scruff" in data (pictured) from a radio telescope, which turned out to be from PSR B1919+21, the first discovered pulsar.
- 1979 – Air New Zealand Flight 901 crashed into Antarctica's Mount Erebus, killing all 257 people on board.
- 1729 – Natchez Indians revolted against French colonists near modern-day Natchez, Mississippi, killing approximately 230 people.
- 1807 – Peninsular War: Maria I of Portugal, the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people departed Lisbon for the colony of Brazil just days before French forces invaded the city.
- 1890 – The National Diet of Japan (pictured in session), a bicameral legislature modelled after both the German Reichstag and the British Westminster system, first met in Tokyo.
- 1963 – Five minutes after taking off from Montreal, Trans-Canada Air Lines Flight 831 crashed in bad weather, killing all 118 people on board.
- 2007 – During their trial for the 2003 Oakwood mutiny, Philippine soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes mutinied and seized a conference room in The Peninsula Manila hotel in Makati.
- 1700 – Great Northern War: Swedish forces led by King Charles XII defeated the Russian army of Tsar Peter the Great at the Battle of Narva.
- 1853 – Crimean War: Russian warships led by Pavel Nakhimov destroyed an Ottoman fleet of frigates at the Battle of Sinop, prompting France and Britain to enter the war.
- 1953 – Mutesa II, Kabaka of Buganda, was temporarily deposed and exiled to London by Andrew Cohen, the British governor of Uganda.
- 1979 – The Wall (performance pictured), a rock opera and concept album by the English band Pink Floyd, was first released.
- 1999 – Marconi Electronic Systems and British Aerospace merged to form BAE Systems, one of the world's largest defence companies.